Few patients with episodic migraine (EM), and even fewer with chronic migraine (CM), receive optimal treatment, new research shows.
Results from a survey study showed less than 8% of patients with episodic migraine and less than 2% of patients with chronic migraine were able to overcome four key treatment barriers associated with optimal migraine management.
These included current medical consultation, appropriate diagnosis, minimally adequate acute and preventive pharmacologic treatment (if indicated), and absence of acute medication overdose.
The researchers also evaluated any potential impact of race, ethnicity, and sociodemographic factors on these barriers.
“While chronic migraine was associated with higher rates of consulting, only 1.8% of respondents with chronic migraine traversed all four barriers compared with 8.5% of those with episodic migraine,” the investigators, led by Dawn C. Buse, PhD, clinical professor of neurology at Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University in New York City, note.
The study was presented at the American Headache Society’s (AHS) 2020 Virtual Annual Scientific Meeting
Migraineurs’ challenges include receiving an appropriate diagnosis and finding effective acute and preventive treatments, the researchers note. Many patients do not receive optimal care.
Previous research by Buse and colleagues shows that general clinicians were less likely to provide an appropriate diagnosis of migraine compared with headache specialists.
Among patients with chronic migraine who consulted headache specialists, most did not receive an accurate diagnosis of chronic migraine. Data also indicate that a minority, approximately 34%, of patients with chronic migraine used preventive pharmacologic treatments.
The investigators analyzed data from the Chronic Migraine Epidemiology and Outcomes (CaMEO) study to determine the proportion of patients who overcame four prespecified barriers to good outcomes.
Eligible participants met modified International Classification of Headache Disorders (3rd edition) criteria for migraine, had Migraine Disability Assessment Scores (MIDAS) of grade II or higher, and provided data on health insurance status. In addition, all eligible participants had to be receiving appropriate treatment for either EM or CM.
In all, 16,789 participants met criteria for migraine. Of this group, 9184 patients had a MIDAS score of grade II or higher and reported health insurance status. In this subgroup, 7930 (86.3%) patients had EM migraine and 1254 (13.7%) had CM.
A total of 2187 (27.6%) patients with episodic migraine and 512 (40.8%) patients with chronic migraine were under the care of a healthcare professional. Of this group, 1655 patients with episodic migraine (75.7%) and 168 with chronic migraine (32.8%) reported receiving an appropriate diagnosis.
Of participants who successfully overcame the first two optimal management barriers — a consultation with a healthcare professional and an appropriate diagnosis — 1133 (68.5%) episodic migraineurs and 113 (67.3%) chronic migraineurs reported receiving minimally adequate acute treatment.
Furthermore, 1430 (86.4%) episodic migraineurs and 127 (75.6%) chronic migraineurs reported receiving minimally adequate preventive medication treatment. In addition, 982 (59.3%) episodic migraineurs and 88 (52.4%) chronic migraineurs received minimally adequate acute and preventive treatment.
Acute medication overuse was relatively common, the investigators report. A total of 310 (31.6%) patients with episodic migraine and 66 (75%) patients with chronic migraine met criteria for acute medication overuse.
“Overuse of acute medication for migraine in people with chronic migraine is a serious concern and is associated with increased risks of migraine progression, headache-related disability, and anxiety and depression. Active patient management and education is important to reduce the likelihood of medication overuse,” Buse told Medscape Medical News.
Among all eligible respondents, only 672 (8.5%) patients with episodic migraine and 22 (1.8%) with chronic migraine overcame all four barriers to optimal care.
The researchers found no significant effect of ethnicity or race on the likelihood of overcoming any barrier, but they acknowledged that participation bias might have contributed to this lack of difference. Higher annual household income was significantly associated with high likelihood of surmounting all four barriers.
“The analysis of sociodemographics revealed that female sex and higher annual household income showed a strong relationship with likelihood of obtaining an accurate episodic migraine or chronic migraine diagnosis,” said Buse.
“Although the reasons for this are not clear, it may be that women are more likely to convey the full scope of their symptoms during consultation. Additionally, the known prevalence of migraine in women may influence healthcare providers by reducing suspicion of chronic migraine in men,” she added.
The CaMEO Study was funded by Allergan (now AbbVie). Buse reports receiving grant support and honoraria from Allergan, Amgen, Biohaven, Eli Lilly and Co, and Promius. She also receives compensation for work on the editorial board of Current Pain and Headache Reports.
American Headache Society (AHS) Annual Meeting 2020: Abstract 838172. Presented June 13, 2020.