Clinical Trials & Research

New study results posted to the medRxiv* preprint server found that COVID vaccine boosters increase immunity by enhancing T cell immune memory. In the face of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS‑CoV‑2) Omicron variant, vaccinated people who had received a third booster shot maintained high T cell responses than people with naturally acquired
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During the ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, a peculiar phenomenon has been observed: younger individuals infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) had fewer cases and a lower mortality rate. It’s widely assumed that the human immune system develops continuously from birth to adolescence, and that immunity to infections is strongest in
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Since December 2019, Wuhan, China, has been conducting influenza and related disease monitoring, and a number of cases of viral pneumonia have been discovered, all of which have been diagnosed as viral pneumonia or pulmonary infection. The World Health Organization (WHO) designated it a novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) on January 12, 2020. The coronavirus Research Group dubbed
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In a recent study published in the medRxiv* preprint server, a team of researchers determined the impact of the emerging severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants of concern (VOCs) and vaccination status on the SARS-CoV-2 transmission dynamics. The study concluded that the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination lowered the susceptibility to infection and the
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New kidney research from the University of Virginia School of Medicine is raising concerns that long-term use of drugs commonly prescribed to treat high-blood pressure and heart failure could be contributing to kidney damage. Patients should continue taking the medications, which include the well-known and widely used ACE inhibitors, the researchers say. But the scientists
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In a recent study posted to the medRxiv* preprint server, researchers determined evidence for post-exposure vaccination in reducing the mortality rate of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Researchers concluded that post-exposure prophylaxis successfully decreased severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-associated death rates.  Study: BNT162b2 post-exposure-prophylaxis against COVID-19. Image Credit: Rido/Shutterstock Background Several drugs such as remdesivir,
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In a recent study published on the medRxiv* pre-print server, researchers tested the ability of vaccine, and vaccine and natural infection-induced immunity to neutralize the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Omicron variant. Study: Sub-optimal Neutralisation of Omicron (B.1.1.529) Variant by Antibodies induced by Vaccine alone or SARS-CoV-2 Infection plus Vaccine (Hybrid Immunity) post
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Mechanical engineering and materials science professor David Needham has shown that a slight increase in solution pH might be all it takes to turn a metabolic inhibiting drug, traditionally used to treat gut parasites, into a promising prophylactic/preventative nasal spray and early treatment throat spray for COVID-19. The results appear online on December 28 in
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A recent randomized clinical trial from the United States (US) shows how daily use of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) probiotic may protect against symptom development in instances when it is used as post-exposure prophylaxis within seven days after exposure to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS‑CoV‑2). Study: Daily Lactobacillus Probiotic versus Placebo in COVID-19-Exposed
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When coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) first arose, it spread across the world very rapidly, and many countries were forced to enact costly and restrictive measures in order to reduce the transmission rate. These included mandatory face masks, social distancing and even full lockdowns/stay-at-home orders. Most countries were worried that high numbers of cases could overwhelm
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In a recent study posted to the medRxiv* pre-print server, researchers used statistical and mathematical models to explore the progressive transmissibilities of B.1.177, Alpha, and Delta variants of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) circulating in England between September 2020 and July 2021. They modeled the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic during this period to
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A team of investigators have discovered a genomic variant that may help clinicians predict which patients will experience cardiotoxicity from a widely used chemotherapy drug, according to a Northwestern Medicine study published in Circulation. The findings underscore the significance of identifying reliable predictive genomic biomarkers and their potential to improve the course of treatment plans
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In a recent study posted to the bioRxiv* preprint server, researchers developed the K18-hACE2 transgenic (K18-hACE2) mouse with hACE2 expression directed by the epithelial cell cytokeratin-18 (K18) promoter to study severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS‑CoV) pathogenesis. The mice were infected with the Pango B lineage, Delta, and Omicron variants of severe acute respiratory syndrome
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In a recent study posted to the bioRxiv* pre-print server, a team of researchers demonstrated the neutralization of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Omicron (B.1.1.529) variant by select antibodies and used cryogenic electron microscopy (cryo-EM) structures to reveal structural mechanisms for the maintenance of potent neutralization against emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOC). Study: Structural
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In a recent study posted to the bioRxiv* pre-print server, researchers investigated the potency of trimeric human nephrocystin SH3, TriSb92, a domain-derived antibody, against a conserved region in the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the spike protein in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants of concern (VOCs). Study: Intranasal inhibitor blocks Omicron and other variants of
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In a recent study posted to the medRxiv* preprint server, researchers determined the neutralizing antibody (nAb) levels against various strains of the severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus disease 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in sera collected from individuals with varying degrees of immunity against the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Study: Three doses of the BNT162b2 vaccine confer neutralising
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When coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) spread across the world, many countries introduced methods to prevent transmission from rising. These included lockdowns, social distancing and closure of public spaces, but the most ubiquitous was the mandatory isolation of infected individuals for a period of time. This prevented the disease from being transmitted to individuals outside the
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A study using artificial intelligence to analyze radiographs from thousands of patients after hip replacement surgery redefines the acetabular “safe zone” to help avoid the risk of dislocation, reports The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery. The journal is published in the Lippincott portfolio in partnership with Wolters Kluwer. Two key angles – anteversion and
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A new medRxiv* preprint study suggests that the immune response against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is greater with a three-dose regimen than a two-dose regimen. Administering a Pfizer-BioNTech booster shot produced a 1.7-fold increase in IgG levels one after one month compared to IgG levels one month after the second dose. Additionally,
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A new medRxiv* preprint study awaiting peer review found that the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine was correlated with a 30% lower risk of COVID-19 infection and hospitalization than the AstraZeneca two-dose vaccines. The findings were robust for at least six months when Delta was the dominant strain, showing that there were no differences in waning immunity between
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A study recently published in the journal Nature has revealed that an activated pre-exposure innate interferon response in airways together with significantly reduced systemic interferon-stimulated populations are associated with relatively milder severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in children. Study: Local and systemic responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection in children and adults. Image Credit:
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In a study posted to the bioRxiv* pre-print server, a team of researchers evaluated potential public health implications of the emerging severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variant of concern (VOC) Omicron, using a rapid computational prediction platform. Study: SARS-COV-2 Omicron variant predicted to exhibit higher affinity to ACE-2 receptor and lower affinity to
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